LAGOS, Nigeria

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Lagos, la più grande città della Nigeria, si estende tra il golfo di Guinea e l’omonima laguna. L’isola di Victoria è il centro finanziario della metropoli.

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Lagos

NIGERIA
Lagos  until 1975 it was the capital of Lagos state, and until December 1991 it was the federal capital of Nigeria. Ikeja replaced Lagos as the state capital, and Abuja replaced Lagos as the federal capital. Lagos, however, remained the unofficial seat of many government agencies. The city’s population is centred on Lagos Island, in Lagos Lagoon, on the Bight of Benin in the Gulf of Guinea. Lagos is Nigeria’s largest city and one of the largest in sub-Saharan Africa.

By the late 15th century Lagos Island had been settled by Yoruba fishermen and hunters, who called it Oko. The area was dominated by the kingdom of Benin, which called it Eko, from the late 16th century to the mid-19th century. The Portuguese first landed on Lagos Island in 1472; trade developed slowly, however, until the Portuguese were granted a slaving monopoly a century later. The local obas (kings) enjoyed good relations with the Portuguese, who called the island Onim (and, later, Lagos) and established a flourishing slave trade.  British attempts to suppress the slave trade culminated in 1851 in a naval attack on Lagos and the deposition of the oba. The slave trade continued to grow, however, until Lagos came under British control in 1861.

Originally governed as a British crown colony, Lagos was part of the United Kingdom’s West African Settlements from 1866 to 1874, when it became part of the Gold Coast Colony (modern Ghana). In 1886 it again achieved separate status under a British governor, and in 1906 it was amalgamated with the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. When Southern and Northern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914, Lagos was made the capital of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. In 1954 most of the hinterland was incorporated into the region of Western Nigeria, while the city itself was designated as federal territory. In 1960 Lagos became the capital of independent Nigeria. Control of its hinterland was returned to the city in 1967 with the creation of Lagos state. After 1975 a new national capital, centrally situated near Abuja, was developed to replace Lagos, which by then suffered from slums, environmental pollution, and traffic congestion.

The topography of Lagos is dominated by its system of islands, sandbars, and lagoons. The city itself sprawls over four main islands: Lagos, Iddo, Ikoyi, and Victoria, which are connected to each other and to the mainland by a system of bridges. All the territory is low-lying, the highest point on Lagos Island being only 22 feet (7 metres) above sea level. The original settlement on the northwestern tip of Lagos Island is now a slum area characterized by narrow streets, poor housing, and overcrowding. The main business district occupies Lagos Island’s southwestern shore and contains an increasing number of multistory buildings. This is the heart of the city, the centre of commerce, finance, administration, and education. The principal manufacturing industries in Lagos include automobile and radio assembly, food and beverage processing, metalworks, and the production of paints and soap. Textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical manufacturing are also economically important. There is also a fishing industry.

 

The port of Lagos consists of Customs Quay, on Lagos Island, and the more important Apapa Quay, on the mainland, which serves as the principal outlet for Nigeria’s exports. The creeks and lagoons are plied by small coastal craft. The city is the western terminus of the country’s road and railway networks, and the airport at Ikeja provides local and international services.

The Lagos metropolitan area is also a major educational and cultural centre. The University of Lagos (1962), the National Library, the Lagos City Libraries, and the National Museum (1957), with excellent historical examples of Nigerian arts and crafts, are all located in the city or its suburbs.

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Exports, Italian records

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I primi posti che l’Italia possiede nell’export mondiale spaziano dalle macchine e dalle tecnologie per l’agricoltura e il tabacco ai prodotti alimentari e alle bevande (in cui primeggiamo a livello mondiale nell’export di pasta, derivati del pomodoro, insaccati, caffè torrefatto, vermut, aceti, mentre nei vini abbiamo un secondo posto di peso) sino a molti tipi di macchine per l’industria alimentare. I nostri primati proseguono nella moda (con molti prodotti del tessile-abbigliamento, della pelletteria, delle calzature, dell’occhialeria, della componentistica di questi settori e dei relativi macchinari industriali). Ed abbiamo molti primi posti anche nell’export mondiale di beni d’arredo per la casa, la cucina e l’ufficio nonché nei materiali e nei prodotti meccanici per il sollevamento e l’edilizia (su tutti i rubinetti e le valvole). L’Italia, inoltre, possiede molti primati nell’export mondiale di prodotti dell’industria della carta , nonché di prodotti dell’industria metallurgica (dai tubi in ferro e acciaio ai lavori in alluminio) ed ha primati importanti anche nelle tecnologie della metallurgia, nelle tecnologie del caldo e del freddo (attrezzature frigorifere per il commercio), nonché nelle macchine per lavorare il legno e i minerali non metalliferi come le pietre ornamentali e le ceramiche. Siamo primi esportatori mondiali anche di diverse tipologie di prodotti in metallo, di macchinari speciali della meccanica hi-tech (tra cui le macchine per imballaggio, vari tipi di macchine per lavorare i metalli e le materie plastiche). Deteniamo primati anche nell’export di beni per il divertimento e lo sport (dagli yacht ai fucili da caccia, sino a beni più di “nicchia” come le selle per bicicletta).

 

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The first places that Italy has in world exports range from machines and technologies for agriculture and tobacco to food products and beverages (in which we excel worldwide in the export of pasta, tomato derivatives, sausages, roasted coffee, vermouth, vinegars, while in wines we have a second place in weight) up to many types of machines for the food industry. Our records continue in fashion (with many textile-clothing products, leather goods, footwear, eyewear, components in these sectors and related industrial machinery). And we also have many first places in the world of home goods, kitchen and office exports as well as in materials and mechanical products for lifting and construction (on all taps and valves). Furthermore, Italy has many firsts in the world export of paper industry products, as well as products from the metallurgical industry (from iron and steel pipes to aluminum works) and has important primates also in metallurgy technologies. in hot and cold technologies (refrigeration equipment for trade), as well as in machines for working wood and non-metallic minerals such as ornamental stones and ceramics. We are also the world’s leading exporters of various types of metal products, special machinery of hi-tech mechanics (including packaging machines, various types of machines for working metals and plastics). We also hold records in the export of goods for fun and sport (from yachts to hunting rifles, to more than “niche” goods like bicycle saddles).

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Crisis cartel

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La recessione è potenzialmente ostile alla politica della concorrenza

“The recession is potentially hostile to competition policy”

J.FINGLETON

L’esperienza della Grande Depressione negli Stati Uniti mostra segnali contraddittori, che vanno dalla sospensione al rafforzamento della politica antitrust.

Fino alla crisi attuale, il diritto antitrust europeo non ha dovuto affrontare recessioni gravi, ma solo crisi settoriali o congiunture negative di limitata entità.

La crisi attuale ha investito gli ordinamenti dei paesi capitalistici in una fase storica in cui le norme antitrust, pur scontando le perenni incertezze nell’individuazione dei principi ispiratori, si trovavano in una fase di allentamento applicativo evidente, in un quadro ideologico iperliberistico; a ciò si aggiunga che la modernizzazione del diritto antitrust comunitario, entrata in vigore nel 2003, è figlia di un periodo di grande sviluppo e di prevalente ideologia neoliberista, e non si pone neanche il problema della possibile sopravvivenza della figura del “cartello di crisi”, senza considerare che una procedura di self- assessment può essere una soluzione razionale ed efficiente se attuata da imprese efficienti e prospere, mentre si presenta molto meno credibile se attuata da imprese che si trovano in condizioni di emergenza o di vera e propria crisi strutturale di settore. La grave crisi finanziaria mondiale, apertasi nell’autunno del 2008, ha creato un clima di emergenza, nel quale alcuni stati membri hanno pensato di dovere immediatamente intervenire, in primo luogo per il salvataggio di banche in difficoltà.

The experience of the Great Depression in the United States shows contradictory signals, ranging from suspension to strengthening antitrust policy.
Until the current crisis, the European antitrust law has not had to face serious recessions, but only sectoral crises or limited negative conjunctures.
The current crisis has invested the laws of the capitalist countries in a historical phase in which the antitrust norms, while discounting the perennial uncertainties in the identification of the inspiring principles, found themselves in a phase of evident application loosening, in a hyperliberistic ideological framework; in addition to this, the modernization of the EU antitrust law, which came into force in 2003, is the result of a period of great development and prevailing neoliberal ideology, and there is not even the problem of the possible survival of the figure of the “crisis cartel” , without considering that a self-assessment procedure can be a rational and efficient solution if implemented by efficient and prosperous companies, while it is much less credible if implemented by companies that are in an emergency or real structural crisis than sector. The severe global financial crisis, which began in the fall of 2008, created an emergency climate, in which some member states thought they would have to intervene immediately, primarily for the rescue of troubled banks.

 

Antitrust seems to be a luxury that the country cannot afford in any crisis

“L’antitrust sembra essere un lusso che il paese non può permettersi in nessuna crisi”

 

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10 Giugno, festa della Marina

10 Giugno

 

Oggi è la festa della nostra Marina Militare, non è una festa privata e non riguarda solo la nostra gente che assicura la difesa dei confini, delle rotte commerciali e la tutela di chi sul mare vive… sarà comunque celebrata in tono minore rispetto ad altre ricorrenze della Repubblica e della nostra Storia.

 

Mollati gli ormeggi, malgrado ogni tipo di comunicazione possibile, la nave vive in autonoma solitudine: l’equipaggio si affida, da sempre, a Dio, al Comandante, ai cannoni e all’esperienza…non necessariamente in quest’ordine. La vita di bordo è sicuramente disciplina e sacrificio.

 

Le navi grigie sono parte della nostra Storia e assicurano il futuro per una Nazione protesa sul mare. Queste navi rappresentano l’apice della nostra tecnologia, il vanto di un popolo e sono ambasciatrici sugli oceani e in terre lontane.

 

Marinai sono tutti: chi per l’eternità riposa sul fondo del mare, chi con orgoglio alza la bandiera sul piccolo molo o chi guarda l’orizzonte dal ponte di comando di un caccia torpediniere o chi ascolta l’oceano dalla centrale operativa di un sottomarino o chi decolla da un incrociatore; tutti loro sono, forse, contenti che la loro festa sia celebrata in tono minore, un po’ più lontana dagli schiamazzi della politica, senza correre il rischio che la festa sia strumento di propaganda o occasione di dileggio da parte di povere anime lontane dal sentimento popolare.

I morti riposano nella gloria, i vivi vegliano su tutti noi e la politica s’impegni a tutelare gl’interessi nazionali… anche senza fanfare!

 

Romano Pisciotti

Batman Existed in Mesoamerican Mythology

As social media is abuzz with who might be cast in the next Batman movie, with concerns that some of the candidates might not be menacing enough to fill those big black boots, it might be time to look again at one of the bat figures that featured as an imposing power in Mesoamerican mythology – Camazotz.

Camazotz, (meaning ‘death bat’ in the Kʼiche’ Mayan language of Guatemala) originated deep in Mesoamerican mythology as a dangerous cave-dwelling bat creature. A cult following for the creature began amongst the Zapotec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico and the figure was later adopted into the pantheon of the Maya Quiche tribe and the legends of the bat god were later recorded in Maya literature.

Bats are considered to be menacing creatures in many cultures. They are nocturnal and thus associated with the night, which is also often associated with death. Many common species also have a relatively bizarre appearance, which makes them all the more off-putting for humans. It doesn’t help that there is a species that actually sucks blood (the vampire bat, Desmodus Rotundus ).

 

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