It is necessary to understand that the technology that will drive the energy transition, whether through green mobility or renewable energy, is mineral-intensive.

Copper, zinc and aluminum are used in the production of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and electric vehicles.

The consumption of these metals is set to increase dramatically with the development of energy and green mobility, especially since these technologies are particularly mineral-intensive. An offshore wind farm requires 17 times more metal than a gas-fired power plant of the same capacity, an onshore wind farm eight times more and a photovoltaic park nine times more.

Copper is a key component in the energy transition: while a natural gas power plant needs a ton of copper to produce one megawatt of electricity, it takes twice as much to produce the same amount of energy with onshore wind and three times as much for photovoltaic panels.

The same goes for electric vehicles, which require three to four times more copper than internal combustion vehicles.

All these metals have a common denominator: they are produced by the mining industry, often by companies whose mining or transport activities are often the subject of controversy, with practices that are criticized or even discredited, by those who promote the cause of sustainable development

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