Joides Resolution

Mare 300x225 Joides Resolution Romano Pisciotti

We still know more about the surface of Mars than what’s under our own seabed.

Here we profile a scientific research vessel that has drilled more holes in the ocean floor than any other and whose expeditions continue to make some of the greatest scientific discoveries of our time.

Name: JOIDES Resolution

Nickname: JR

JR 300x169 Joides Resolution Romano Pisciotti
JR

Operator: International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)

Launched: 1978 (with IODP since 1985)

Type: Ocean-going research drilling vessel

Height: 62m (similar to the leaning tower of Pisa)

Crew: 70 + 60 scientists and technicians

The JOIDES Resolution (JR for short) circumnavigates the globe drilling holes and pulling up rock cores from under the seabed all in the name of scientific research. Rock cores hold important clues to our planet’s past and future and the JR provides the perfect place to investigate some of the biggest questions about Earth.

core sample 300x169 Joides Resolution Romano Pisciotti

Scientists discuss different climatic events that can be ‘read’ in the core samples. Through time sediments are deposited on the sea floor building up layers that trained scientists can read like a book.

 

Not only is the JR an impressive ship, it’s also a floating laboratory that scientists use to analyse each core and tell us about the climate and life that existed when the sediments where deposited back through Earth’s history.

The boat only goes into port every 2 months to re-supply and start a new expedition Each expedition lasts two months and has a specific scientific aim.

JR scientific expedition stats:

Number of expeditions: 165

Total distance travelled: 538,752 nautical miles

Core holes drilled: 2500

Length of core recovered: 322,616m

Deepest hole drilled: 2111m

Deepest water depth drilled in: 5980m

 

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Romano Pisciotti 2017 225x300 Joides Resolution Romano Pisciotti
Romano Pisciotti 

M/n AUGUSTUS

 

 

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La motonave Augustus è stato un transatlantico costruito in Italia con la gemella Giulio Cesare, dopo la seconda guerra mondiale (1950). Queste due unità avevano  caratteristiche tecniche moderne e i motori più potenti sino allora costruiti dalla FIAT.

Nella foto di copertina l’immagine del grande fumaiolo che per le sue dimensioni fu simpaticamente ribattezzato dai marittimi “O’ Vesuvio”

L’Augustus è  stata realizzata, per conto dei Cantieri Riuniti dell’Adriatico, nel Cantiere San Marco di Trieste.

Augustus 1 M/n AUGUSTUS Romano Pisciotti
Augustus 1

MS Augustus was a 27,090 GRT, luxurious ocean liner built in 1950 for Italian Line. She was the sister ship to MS Giulio Cesare that was launched in the same year. These two ships were built to the same design, with similar specifications. After the Augustus was sold to Hong Kong, she sailed under five names. The ship was later sold to Manila Hotel and renamed MS Philippines, functioning as a static hotel. As reported by both Maritimematters, and ssmaritime, the MS Philippines, was sold for scrap in September 2011. As of December 2011, she was beached in Alang for scrapping.

I transatlantici 290x300 M/n AUGUSTUS Romano Pisciotti

Augustus 2 M/n AUGUSTUS Romano Pisciotti
Augustus 2

Nel cuore, Romano Pisciotti

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Augustus 3

Articolo del Secolo XIX del 09 marzo 2012:

“Addio Augustus, ultimo transatlantico

Tutte le navi prima o poi finiscono qua, su questa lingua di sabbia dell’India, non lontana dal Pakistan. Abili mediatori cercano l’affare migliore, battono gli angoli più bui di ogni porto, alla ricerca della carretta abbandonata o dell’armatore che non ce la fa più. Trattano un buon prezzo, si prendono la nave, la portano ad Alang e la trasformano in prezioso acciaio da rivendere alle fonderie.

In questa caccia senza sosta, non è raro imbattersi in qualche tesoro. È successo ai mediatori che da settembre hanno cominciato a trattare con la Manila Floating Hotels l’acquisto dell’ “Augustus”. Una nave particolare, nell’ambiente lo sanno tutti. Perché era l’ultima unità della flotta dell’Italia di Navigazione: lo scorso 4 marzo avrebbe compiuto 60 anni tondi tondi: ma il suo cuore è già stato portato via, e tra poche settimane non rimarrà più niente, se non un bel ricordo e forse per qualcuno un po’ di rimpianto.

L’Italia di Navigazione ha controllato per lungo tempo la seconda flotta di transatlantici al mondo. Ma già alla fine degli anni Sessanta, nel palazzo in Piazza De Ferrari a Genova, quello che oggi ospita la Regione Liguria, i gruppi dirigenti si erano accorti che la società era condannata dallo sviluppo dei voli intercontinentali. Già nel 1981, la compagnia era stata trasformata in una società per il trasporto di container, destinata a sparire nell’arco di un decennio. La flotta dei transatlantici venne spazzata via: “Raffaello” e “Michelangelo” furono vendute allo scià di Persia poco prima dell’avvento di Khomeini. La prima oggi è un ammasso di lamiere arrugginite nelle acque di fronte Bushehr, la seconda è stata demolita in Pakistan nel 1991, dopo essere rimasta ferma a Bandar Abbas per 15 anni. “Verdi”, “Donizetti” e “Rossini” vennero demolite nel ’77. La “Colombo”, dopo un’infelice parentesi in Venezuela e un tentativo di recupero andato male, è stata demolita in Taiwan nel 1982. La “Leonardo” venne dimenticata due anni nel porto della Spezia, poi nel 1980 un incendio ne decretò la fine. La “Marconi” ha resistito fino al 2002 sotto il nome di “Costa Riviera”, poi è andata in demolizione.

Per l’Augustus la storia è continuata: dal 1976 al 1999 i suoi motori Fiat – i più grandi mai costruiti dalla casa torinese – hanno continuato a macinare miglia su miglia. Sette nomi diversi, tre bandiere, un lungo servizio come traghetto tra Hong Kong e Taiwan. Addirittura, nel ’99, all’inizio del grande boom delle crociere, sembrava che la nave potesse tornare alle antiche glorie. Una società delle filippine voleva farne la sua bandiera, chiamandola “Asian Princess”. Ma dopo i lavori di ristrutturazione nei grandi cantieri di Subic, il progetto è naufragato. Sotto il nome di “Philippines”, la nave ha funzionato a lungo come ristorante galleggiante. La Manila Hotels ha fatto di tutto per custodire questo tesoro dimenticato dall’Italia. Ma di fronte all’ultima crisi economica ha gettato la spugna, condannando l’ “Augustus” al suo ultimo viaggio.”

 

 

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M/s Philippines
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trasformata in hotel
Tipo Transatlantico
Proprietà Italia – Società di Navigazione
Genova
Costruttori Cantieri Riuniti dell’Adriatico
Cantiere Cantiere San Marco, Trieste
Impostazione 1º giugno 1949
Varo 19 novembre 1950
Entrata in servizio 20 febbraio 1952
Destino finale Demolita ad Alang nel 2010

9 Ottobre Giornata Nazionale Persone con sindrome di DOWN

VELE

di Romano Pisciotti

 

Per Natale, i nostri genitori regalarono, a me, una barca giocattolo tipo veliero da competizione, e a mio fratello un barcone a vela allestito come una nave pirata.

Imbacuccati all’inverosimile, forniti di sciarpa e passamontagna, in un tiepido inverno ligure, giocavamo facendo solcare alle nostre navi le acque della fontana di Loano.

Negli anni ’60, a Loano, c’era una profumatissima pineta sul mare intorno ad un’enorme fontana circolare; non so cosa sia rimasto della passeggiata a mare, dei suoi profumi e della fontana.

La vasca aveva una sponda talmente bassa che i cuccioli, bambini e cagnolini, potevano giocare insieme e toccare l’acqua. Qualche bambino, approfittando dell’impegnato chiacchierio tra mamme e nonne sedute sulle panchine, seguiva in vasca il cucciolo più esuberante della combriccola: più che un bagno fuori stagione era solo una bella inzuppata, l’acqua era profonda solo un paio di spanne. Si trovava sempre l’occasione, magari per recuperare una barca, per cedere alla tentazione di scavalcare il bordo, confine tra sogno e realtà.

Anche se poco profonda, la vasca ci sembrava enorme ed era abbellita da qualche scoglio emergente, l’ideale per far sognare a noi bambini mari insidiosi e oceani infiniti.

Non vestivamo alla marinara ed eravamo impacciati da sciarpe e cappottini, più adatti al nebbioso inverno milanese da dove, per qualche giorno, eravamo fuggiti grazie al consiglio del medico di famiglia, il mitico dottor Mastelli: medico della mutua che si adoperava come pediatra, geriatra e “maresciallo” della salute in tutto il quartiere. In quegli anni, quando possibile, erano consigliate cure naturali, così, con qualche sacrificio, nostra madre organizzò una vacanza marina subito dopo Natale, per la convalescenza di qualche malanno infantile o per un miracoloso “cambiamento d’aria”.

Quell’anno, ebbi l’occasione di varare la mia barca in fontana!

Ho ricordi dolci e profumati di quella breve vacanza invernale.

Eravamo felici manovrando abilmente lo spago che univa noi alla prua dei nostri sogni.

Il mio veliero poteva esibirsi in spericolate evoluzioni in pieno oceano, il veliero di mio fratello Edo doveva, invece, procedere più lentamente: la forma tozza e il peso dell’armamento consigliavano una navigazione più cauta per evitare l’allagamento del ponte di coperta; la vela era unica ma enorme e la bandiera pirata issata a riva compensava le ridotte prestazioni con promesse di lunghe traversate ricche d’avventure e di bottini.

Ripensandoci ora, la barca di mio fratello era una chiatta variopinta più incline a una tranquilla navigazione sui Navigli e la mia vela non sarebbe stata scelta neppure da Capitan Findus.

Anche qualche collisione con vaporetti a ruota o armatissimi incrociatori di altri bimbi, erano parte di un gioco meraviglioso. L’intrusione di qualche rimorchiatore con carica a molla ci distraeva dai nostri viaggi, per qualche istante ci fermavamo imbambolati da tanta tecnologia, ma l’ebrezza delle vele spiegate e della “propulsione a spago”, ci faceva tornare subito al nostro posto di comando.

Le nostre barche, la mia e quello di Edoardo, erano per noi bellissime, ma ricordo bene la mia preferenza per la sua nave dei pirati. Mio fratello non reclamava se, spesso, ci scambiavamo i giocattoli.

Edo era un ragazzo “down”, è rimasto bambino ed è morto a quarant’anni di leucemia devastante, dopo aver subito e sopportato per anni anche il buio progressivo ma definitivo della cecità.

La mia barca azzurra è stata la libertà che il suo cuore avrebbe desiderato. Forse il suo cuore si sarebbe accontentato di meno avventure di quelle che la vita ha offerto a me, si sarebbe accontentato di vivere una vita normale, senza torture.

Con la sua nave pirata ho girato il mondo e, combattendo, ho conquistato, perso e riconquistato tesori luccicanti, ho visitato isole felici e luoghi di sofferenza.

Porto nell’anima il suo dolcissimo sorriso e quel viso un po’ pacioccone dagli occhi esotici. Conservo i doni dei nostri genitori: il coraggio di mia madre e il silenzioso dolore di mio padre.

Arrivederci Dodino, appuntamento a quella tranquilla fontana dove stai giocando.

Romano

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Leggeri come bolle

U-boat

U boat U boat Romano Pisciotti
U boat

U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot [ˈuːboːt] , a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally “undersea boat”. While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one (in common with several other languages) refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the Firstand Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role (commerce raiding), enforcing a naval blockadeagainst enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada, the British Empire, and the United States to the islands of the United Kingdom and (during the Second World War) to the Soviet Union and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean.

 

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The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP)

TANKER OFFLOADING

LOOP safely and efficiently offloads tankers of crude oil that are imported into the U.S. from the Arabian Gulf, Russia, West Africa, the North Sea, Mexico and South America. Many tankers that discharge their cargoes at LOOP are supertankers and are designated as either “very large crude carriers” (VLCCs) or “ultra large crude carriers” (ULCCs). These massive ships can be longer than the Empire State Building is tall.

In response to change US supply patterns, LOOP has made modifications to it’s mooring configuration to receive Jones Act compliant Medium Range (MR) tankers to receive cargoes from US ports. It also allows for FPSO shuttle tankers to deliver their cargo to LOOP.

marine hose The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
marine hose

The LOOP oil port and pipeline were specially constructed to accommodate these enormous vessels. Standing in 110 feet of water some 20 miles from land in the Gulf of Mexico, the LOOP Marine Terminal can comfortably accommodate tankers calling at the port.

Once anchored at one of the three single point mooring (SPM) buoys, hoses are attached to a ship’s manifold for offloading. Hi-tech, flexible hoses are attached to the ship’s manifold to receive and transport the crude oil. It is pumped from the ship in an underground pipeline.

Oil movement controllers from LOOP, in close communication with the ship, initiate the offloading of the vessel to the LOOP Marine Terminal where it is pumped into a 48-inch diameter pipeline to the LOOP storage facilities at a rate of up to 100,000 barrels per hour.

The oil arrives at the LOOP storage facility in Clovelly, Louisiana, some 45 miles from the marine terminal. There the oil is stored in a network of underground caverns and aboveground tanks. The LOOP marine terminal, pipeline and storage facilities reside in a Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) which provides opportunities for companies importing foreign crude oil to optimize their U.S. Customs duties.

pumping platform The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
pumping platform

 

 

 

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The first cargo ships passed through Egypt’s New Suez Canal

The first cargo ships passed through Egypt’s New Suez Canal on Saturday in a test-run before it opens next month, state media reported, 11 months after the army began constructing the $8 billion canal alongside the existing 145-year-old Suez Canal.

suez cana 1dcrxq 300x200 The first cargo ships passed through Egypts New Suez Canal Romano Pisciotti
new suez canal

The new waterway, which President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi hopes will help expand trade along the fastest shipping route between Europe and Asia and give a boost to Egypt’s economy, will be formally inaugurated on Aug. 6.

Sisi wants the canal to become a symbol of national pride and to help combat Egypt’s double-digit unemployment. The old Suez Canal is already a vital source of hard currency for Egypt, which has seen tourism and foreign investment drain away in the years of turmoil since a 2011 uprising.

Three container ships crossed the new waterway, state news agency MENA reported. One was an American ship heading to Egypt’s Port Said from Saudi Arabia, another was a Danish ship sailing to the United States from Singapore, and a Bahraini ship going to Italy from Saudi Arabia.

The exercise took place amid tight security. An insurgency based in the Sinai Peninsula, which borders on the Suez Canal, has killed hundreds of soldiers and police since 2013. State television said there were helicopters circling above and showed naval vessels escorting the ships.

Mohab Mameesh, the chairman of the Suez Canal Authority who led the project, told state television from aboard the first ship that the test-run had been a success.

“This is the first trial crossing but it will be followed by more trials,” he said. “We are 99.2 percent done with everything. We should be completely done in two or three days.”

The existing canal earns Egypt around $5 billion per year. The new canal, which will allow two-way traffic of larger ships, is supposed to increase revenues by 2023 to $15 billion.

It should also reduce navigation time for ships to 11 hours from about 22 hours, Mameesh said last month, making it the fastest such waterway in the world.

The government also plans to build an international industrial and logistics hub nearby that it hopes will eventually make up about a third of the Egyptian economy. (Reporting by Omar Fahmy and Yusri Mohamed; Writing by Ahmed Aboulenein; Editing by Raissa Kasolowsky)

Jul 25, 2015

 

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Attack submarine

Forget missiles, US Navy reveals nuclear submarine that can launch underwater DRONES !!!

2AC1A20000000578 3170159 image m 2 1437584413539 300x53 Attack submarine Romano Pisciotti

 

Attack submarine spent two months in Mediterranean testing drones
Was launched using special shelter usually used by special forces divers
Expected to be used as spy carrying infrared and other cameras
The US Navy has revealed its latest weapon – and underwater drone that can be released from submarines on the sea bed.
It is hoped the technology could be used in attack submarines following a successful trial on the USS North Dakota.
In a first for the U.S. Navy, the submarine has launched and recovered an underwater drone used in a military operation.

 

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What is an FPSO ?

 

FPSO Fluminense 300x200 What is an FPSO ? Romano Pisciotti
Offloading FPSO FLUMINENSE – Campo de BijupirESalema
27 de Novembro 2003

A Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) installation is a floating facility, usually based on a (converted) oil tanker hull. It is equipped with hydrocarbon processing equipment for separation and treatment of crude oil, water and gases, arriving on board from sub-sea oil wells via flexible pipelines.

Treated oil is transferred to cargo tanks in the FPSO ship’s hull. Treated gas is used as fuel for on-board power generation, and excess gas is either re-injected back into the subsea reservoirs or exported via a pipeline to shore. Water that is produced during production is discharged overboard, within the environmental limits. Alternatively, water may be injected into the reservoirs.

FPSO What is an FPSO ? Romano Pisciotti

Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship ” ROMA “

Roma 300x164 Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship  ROMA  Romano PisciottiSeptember 9th, 1943

September 9th, 1943

On September 9th 1943, the day following the proclamation of the armistice, the Italian battlegroup, under the command of Admiral Carlo Bergamini, was attacked in the waters of the Gulf of Asinara by a formation of German bombers. During the attack, the ship was struck and the commander at sea, along with a great number of officers, petty officers and sailors perished, in all 1.253 men.

How did it happen? Why was the most modern and most powerful Italian battleships sunk by just one bomb? Why did so many loose their lives?

September 3rd, 1943. Gen. Castellano, on behalf of Marshal Badoglio and the Gen. Bedeli Smith, representing Gen. Eisenhower, secretly signed in Cassibile (Sicily) the so-called “Short Military Armistice”. The document was composed of 13 clauses and the fourth one called for «the immediate transfer of the Italian fleet and the Italian airplanes to those places that will be designated by the allied Command with the details of their disarmament, that will be decided by the Allied forces». Adm. Raffaele de Courten, Minister of the Navy, along with the commanders responsible of the other branches, was called by Prime Minister Badoglio, who informed them that «negotiations are in progress to conclude an armistice with the Anglo-Americans», but that the news must be kelpt absolutely secret.

September 5th, 1943. The Head of the Armed Forces, General Ambrosio, mentioned to de Courten that the conclusion of the armistice and its declaration were to be expected between the 10th and the 15th of September , probably on the 12th or 13th and that most probability the fleet would be relocated to La Maddalena (Sardinia), where the King would most probably come with the royal family and part of the Government.

September 6th, 1943. De Courten received confirmation from Ambrosio that such a course of action should be implemented if events hamper the actions of the government and the military leaders so recommend. Consequently, Supermarina ordered that the two destroyers, the Vivaldi and Da Noli be stationed in Civitavecchia at dawn on September 9th, ready to sail in two hours. Two corvettes were stationed in Gaeta, and two MAS in Fiumicino (near the estuary if the Tiber River). The morning of the 7th, De Courten called a meeting in Rome for all admirals reporting to the Naval High Command (Supermarina). By this time, he still did not know that the armistice had been signed on September 3.

More and more, evident signs predicted an allied offensive against the southern coast of Italy. Twenty submarines were deployed along the possible approach routes of the convoy and they were put in a state of alarm.

September 7th, 1943. De Courten called a meeting at the Ministry of the Navy. Attendees included the Naval High Commander, Adm. Carlo Bergamini. During the meeting, de Courten did not consider it opportune to inform all present of the negotiations in progress for the armistice because such information was considered highly secret. With the attendees, he defined a conventional signal that would be used to order the scuttling of the fleet.

September 8 th, 1943. As soon as confirmation of the beginning of the allied landing in Salerno was received, de Courten gave orders to the Commander at Sea, Adm. Carlo Bergamini, (who in the meantime had returned aboard the Roma in Spezia), to fire up the boilers and be ready to sail at 2:00 PM. Anticipating an offensive the following day, orders were given to coordinate operations with the Regia Aeronautica and the Luftwaffe.

De Courten was called by the supreme commander General Ambrosio, who informed him that the Allies had rejected the proposal to transfer the fleet to La Maddalena, but that they had allowed one cruiser and four destroyers to be left to the disposal of the King. Nevertheless, he added that he would continue to insist on the La Maddalena issue, and that he still hoped to succeed in convincing the Allies. Finally, he told him to wait for orders to leave La Spezia with the battle group in about six hours.

De Courten was then called to the Quirinale (Royal Palace) for a meeting directed by the King. Gen. Ambrosio informed the audience that the armistice had been signed on September 3 with the agreement that a specific day for implementation would be communicated based on the mutual operational needs of the Italian and the Anglo-American.

At 18:30, Radio Algiers releases the news of the armistice to the world.

At 19:45 Badoglio made the following radio announcement: “The Italian Government, recognizing the impossibility of continuing the uneven struggle against the overwhelming enemy power, with the intent of saving further and more serious calamities to the Nation, has asked Gen. Eisenhower, commaner in chief of the Allies forces, for an armistice. The request has been accepted. Consequently every action of hostility against the allied armed forces must stop from the Italian armed forces in every place. They (the Italian forces), however, will react to possible attacks of any other origin».

According to the clauses of the armistice, the Italian ships, bearing black circular panels in sign of surrender, would be to transferred to Malta to await their final destiny. The situation had been completely turned upside-down. A few hours before, the Regia Marina was prepared to go to sea and fight the Allies. Not even the commander. Admiral Carlo Bergamini, had been made aware of the developments of the political situation. The highest secrecy, desired by Gen. Vittorio Ambrosio, had had its results.

Adm. Sansonetti gave orders to the fleet to reach the agreed allied ports but without “deliverering of the ships and lowering of the flag”. To convince friends and enemies alike, he transmitted his orders in clear..

Gen. Ambrosio asked the Anglo-Americans that the Fleet, for technical reasons, be moved to La Maddalena and that everything be ready for the docking of the ships.

Aboard the ships the excitement reached a dangerous level. Bergamini had to issue orders forbidding anyone from boarding the ship without proper notification and authorization. “No one should ask for directives”, he announced, “They will come when needed”. In the end, it was decided to call all admirals and commanders to a meeting. It was 10 PM.

The departure of the fleet, given as imminent during the day, had been postponed several times. Tension amongst the crew was at its worst. Bergamini took the situation under control and confirmed to the admirals and commanders the news of the armistice and summarily mentioned his telephone calls with Rome. He reminded everyone of the supreme duty of obedience so paramount in such a dramatic time.

September 9th, 1943. At 3 PM the fleet left for La Maddalena. It did not hoist the black signs of the surrender. At the same time, in the Gulf of Salerno, the Anglo-American operation “Avalanch” had begun.

Three battleships left La Spezia: the Roma, with Adm. Bergamini aboard, the Vittorio Veneto and Littorio (renamed Italia after July 25, 1943) with Adm. Garofolo. Three cruisers (Eugenio di Savoia, Adm. Oliva; Montecuccoli and Regolo) and eight destroyers (Legionario, Grecale, Oriani, Velite, Mitragliere, Fuciliere, Artigliere and Carabiniere). The Fleet was maintained at about twenty kilometers from the western coast of Corsica at a speed of 22 knots. At dawn, an allied plane spotted the fleet. At 8:00 AM Adm.. Meendsen Bohlken, commander of the German forces in La Spezia, gave the alarm to Berlin: «The Italian fleet has departed during the night to surrender itself to the enemy».

At noon on the 9th the Fleet , with the ships in a line formation, was in sight of the Bocche di Bonifacio. Bergamini took a 90-degree left turn toward la Maddalena, but at 13.40 PM he received news that La Maddalena had been occupied by German forces. Without hesitation, Bergamini reversed course 180 degrees.

At 2:00 PM, Bergamini was in sight of the Asinara. Meantime more reconnaissance planes were spotted. Unexpectedly, from five thousand meters, airplanes dropped a few bombs without striking any of the ships

From lstres (Marsiglia) 15 two-engine Donier 217 KIIs from the 3rd Squadron of the 100° group took off. Each airplane was equipped with a type FX-1400 bomb. This bomb had been designed in 1939 by Doctor Kramer and was originally named FritzX. The FX-1400, which was also knows as the SD 1400, was a high penetration 1400-kilo device with four small wings, tail controls and a rocket motor. Near the tail a remote control system was also installed. The control was operated by the airplane from which the bomb had been launched. The bomb, with 300 kilograms of explosives, was 3,30 meter long .

At 15.30 the first bomb was directed toward the Littorio (named Italia after July 25 1943) and it fell near the battleship temporarily blocking the rudder. The ship was then controlled with the auxiliary rudder. The point of the attack was about 14 miles southwest miles of Cape Testa (Sardinia).

The rocket bombs were a great surprise. Not only were they extremely precise, but the fact that they were dropped at 60 degrees instead of the usual 80 created confusion. This new technique tricked the Italian officers into believing that the German intentions were not offensive. This mistake was fatal, considering that the Italians were under order to fight back only if attacked.

Only after a demonstration of such evident hostility from the Germans, did the Roma give the signal of «air alarm». The antiaircraft batteries, first from the right, then from the left, opened swift fire, but it was too late! The airplanes were just above the ships and in that position they were safe.

At 15.45 the Roma was hit on the right side. The bomb burst into sea after having crossed the whole hull and the ship’s speed was reduced to 10 knots.

At 15.50 the Roma was struck again by a second bomb. This one exploded in the forward deposits of the big caliber complexes. The ship was fatally wounded. A column of flames and smoke rose for a thousand meters. The turret n. 2 (1.500 tons) along with all of its occupants and the command tower were projected aloft and tilted to the right side. It was the end for Bergamini and his staff. The ship began to tilt to the right side. It was a horrendous show of death and destruction. The majority of the men were burnted alive.

At 16.12 the Roma turned upside-down, broke into two stumps, and sank. With her 2 Admirals, 86 Officers and 1264 sailors were lost.

Roma 2 Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship  ROMA  Romano Pisciotti