9 Ottobre 2016 Giornata Nazionale Persone con sindrome di DOWN

VELE

di Romano Pisciotti

 

Per Natale, i nostri genitori regalarono, a me, una barca giocattolo tipo veliero da competizione, e a mio fratello un barcone a vela allestito come una nave pirata.

Imbacuccati all’inverosimile, forniti di sciarpa e passamontagna, in un tiepido inverno ligure, giocavamo facendo solcare alle nostre navi le acque della fontana di Loano.

Negli anni ’60, a Loano, c’era una profumatissima pineta sul mare intorno ad un’enorme fontana circolare; non so cosa sia rimasto della passeggiata a mare, dei suoi profumi e della fontana.

La vasca aveva una sponda talmente bassa che i cuccioli, bambini e cagnolini, potevano giocare insieme e toccare l’acqua. Qualche bambino, approfittando dell’impegnato chiacchierio tra mamme e nonne sedute sulle panchine, seguiva in vasca il cucciolo più esuberante della combriccola: più che un bagno fuori stagione era solo una bella inzuppata, l’acqua era profonda solo un paio di spanne. Si trovava sempre l’occasione, magari per recuperare una barca, per cedere alla tentazione di scavalcare il bordo, confine tra sogno e realtà.

Anche se poco profonda, la vasca ci sembrava enorme ed era abbellita da qualche scoglio emergente, l’ideale per far sognare a noi bambini mari insidiosi e oceani infiniti.

Non vestivamo alla marinara ed eravamo impacciati da sciarpe e cappottini, più adatti al nebbioso inverno milanese da dove, per qualche giorno, eravamo fuggiti grazie al consiglio del medico di famiglia, il mitico dottor Mastelli: medico della mutua che si adoperava come pediatra, geriatra e “maresciallo” della salute in tutto il quartiere. In quegli anni, quando possibile, erano consigliate cure naturali, così, con qualche sacrificio, nostra madre organizzò una vacanza marina subito dopo Natale, per la convalescenza di qualche malanno infantile o per un miracoloso “cambiamento d’aria”.

Quell’anno, ebbi l’occasione di varare la mia barca in fontana!

Ho ricordi dolci e profumati di quella breve vacanza invernale.

Eravamo felici manovrando abilmente lo spago che univa noi alla prua dei nostri sogni.

Il mio veliero poteva esibirsi in spericolate evoluzioni in pieno oceano, il veliero di mio fratello Edo doveva, invece, procedere più lentamente: la forma tozza e il peso dell’armamento consigliavano una navigazione più cauta per evitare l’allagamento del ponte di coperta; la vela era unica ma enorme e la bandiera pirata issata a riva compensava le ridotte prestazioni con promesse di lunghe traversate ricche d’avventure e di bottini.

Ripensandoci ora, la barca di mio fratello era una chiatta variopinta più incline a una tranquilla navigazione sui Navigli e la mia vela non sarebbe stata scelta neppure da Capitan Findus.

Anche qualche collisione con vaporetti a ruota o armatissimi incrociatori di altri bimbi, erano parte di un gioco meraviglioso. L’intrusione di qualche rimorchiatore con carica a molla ci distraeva dai nostri viaggi, per qualche istante ci fermavamo imbambolati da tanta tecnologia, ma l’ebrezza delle vele spiegate e della “propulsione a spago”, ci faceva tornare subito al nostro posto di comando.

Le nostre barche, la mia e quello di Edoardo, erano per noi bellissime, ma ricordo bene la mia preferenza per la sua nave dei pirati. Mio fratello non reclamava se, spesso, ci scambiavamo i giocattoli.

Edo era un ragazzo “down”, è rimasto bambino ed è morto a quarant’anni di leucemia devastante, dopo aver subito e sopportato per anni anche il buio progressivo ma definitivo della cecità.

La mia barca azzurra è stata la libertà che il suo cuore avrebbe desiderato. Forse il suo cuore si sarebbe accontentato di meno avventure di quelle che la vita ha offerto a me, si sarebbe accontentato di vivere una vita normale, senza torture.

Con la sua nave pirata ho girato il mondo e, combattendo, ho conquistato, perso e riconquistato tesori luccicanti, ho visitato isole felici e luoghi di sofferenza.

Porto nell’anima il suo dolcissimo sorriso e quel viso un po’ pacioccone dagli occhi esotici. Conservo i doni dei nostri genitori: il coraggio di mia madre e il silenzioso dolore di mio padre.

Arrivederci Dodino, appuntamento a quella tranquilla fontana dove stai giocando.

Romano

Leggeri come bolle 300x150 9 Ottobre 2016 Giornata Nazionale Persone con sindrome di DOWN Romano Pisciotti
Leggeri come bolle

Carnival Orders Five Ships from Fincantieri – April 2016

On Saturday, Carnival Corporation finalized contracts with Italian shipbuilder Fincantieri to build five new cruise ships as part of a memorandum of agreement announced in 2015. The five new ships include two that will be built for Costa Asia for deployment in China, two ships for Princess Cruises and one designated for P&O Cruises Australia, with deliveries expected in 2019 and 2020.

CARNIVAL BREEZE 300x111 Carnival Orders Five Ships from Fincantieri   April 2016 Romano Pisciotti
CARNIVAL BREEZE

 

The new ships for both Costa Asia and P&O Cruises Australia are expected to be 135,500-ton vessels with the capacity to carry 4,200 passengers. The 143,700-ton, 3,560-passenger ships for Princess Cruises will be the brand’s fourth and fifth Royal-class vessels, featuring the successful design platform used on Royal Princess, Regal Princess and the new , Majestic Princess coming in 2017.

The five new ships across three brands will be built at Fincantieri’s shipyards in Monfalcone and Marghera, Italy.

Carnival Corporation has now taken delivery of two new ships in 2016 – AIDAprima for AIDA Cruises and Koningsdam for Holland America Line. Including the five new ships highlighted during Saturday’s signing ceremony with Fincantieri, Carnival Corporation has a total of 16 new ships scheduled to be delivered between 2016 and 2020.

CARNIVAL LIBERTY 300x111 Carnival Orders Five Ships from Fincantieri   April 2016 Romano Pisciotti
CARNIVAL LIBERTY

 

The P&O Cruises Australia ship, the brand’s first-ever newbuild construction, will be designed to capture the essence of modern Australia and will feature the largest passenger capacity of any ship in the line’s fleet, serving 4,200 passengers. The new ship will join an already growing fleet that was recently expanded with the addition of Pacific Aria and Pacific Eden in November 2015, and will see the introduction of the 2,000-passenger Pacific Explorer in 2017.

Australia is one of the fastest growing cruise markets in the world, with an average annual passenger growth rate of 20 percent over the past decade, and the enhanced fleet for P&O Cruises Australia will help meet growing cruise demand in the region.

Carnival partenze 300x87 Carnival Orders Five Ships from Fincantieri   April 2016 Romano Pisciotti
Carnival partenze

 

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April 2016

Firmato il decreto di compatibilità ambientale – FPSO OMBRINA

FPSO 300x126 Firmato il decreto di compatibilità ambientale   FPSO OMBRINA Romano Pisciotti
FPSO OMBRINA

 

PESCARA. Il ministro dell’Ambiente Gian Luca Galletti e il ministro dei Beni culturali Dario Franceschini hanno firmato ieri il decreto di compatibilità ambientale per lo sviluppo della piattaforma Ombrina mare della società Rockhopper al largo della costa abruzzese. È l’ultimo atto amministrativo (a parte il decreto di concessione del ministero dello Sviluppo economico che a questo punto diventa una formalità) prima dell’avvio delle operazioni di realizzazione della piattaforma a 12 chilometri dalla costa. Un progetto contestato non solo dai movimenti e dai comitati anti trivelle, ma anche dalla Regione Abruzzo, dai vescovi della Conferenza episcopale Abruzzo e Molise, dai partiti, dai sindacati e dai 60 mila cittadini che a fine maggio a Lanciano hanno manifestato contro Ombrina e la politica energetica del premier Renzi.
Il via libera è stato dato a condizione che vengano eseguiti le prescrizioni e gli adempimenti amministrativi previsti dalla procedura Via (Valutazione di impatto ambientale) e Aia (Autorizzazione Impatto ambientale). La firma dei due ministri, quasi scontata dopo l’accelerazione all’iter concessorio per gli idrocarburi previsto dal decreto Sblocca Italia e dopo l’ok del comitato nazionale Via dello scorso aprile, è arrivata a 24 ore dall’esame definitivo in Consiglio dei ministri del decreto legislativo, presentato da Galletti e dal ministro delle Attività produttive Federica Guidi, che attua la direttiva europea sulla sicurezza delle operazioni in mare nel settore degli idrocarburi.

Il decreto firmato dai due ministri obbliga da un lato la società concessionaria Rockhopper a realizzare il progetto entro 5 anni, nello stesso tempo ammette il ricorso al Tar entro 60 giorni dalla pubblicazione in Gazzetta ufficiale e il ricorso al Capo dello Stato entro 120 giorni.
E sarà questa la strada che intraprenderà la Regione, come confermano sia il governatore Luciano D’Alfonso che l’assessore all’Ambiente Mario Mazzocca. «Ci siamo già strutturati contro questo provvedimento», dice D’Alfonso, «e andremo avanti fino alla “corte celeste”. Useremo tutti gli strumenti previsti dal diritto e dall’ordinamento, non escludendo nessuna iniziativa. Troveremo un giudice che farà valere le nostre ragioni». D’Alfonso sottolinea anche come l’Abruzzo non sia «solo nel fare questa battaglia dal punto di vista anche della solidarietà regionalista, anche se in questo caso il campo di impegno è nostro». Per l’assessore Mazzocca che ha già messo in conto di studiarsi decreto e allegati (circa 60 cartelle) nei pochi giorni di ferie ferragostane, «il ricorso al Tar è già determinato in consiglio regionale con una apposita ordinanza. Qualora il governo voglia procedere con il decreto di concessione mineraria da parte del ministero dello Sviluppo economico», aggiunge, «ricorreremo anche contro questo provvedimento». Per quanto riguarda le prescrizioni cui si riferisce il decreto ministeriale, queste non dovrebbero complicare di molto il lavoro della Rockhopper. La società dovrà dotarsi di «un sistema di gestione ambientale con una struttura organizzativa composta dal personale addetto alla direzione, conduzione e alla manutenzione dell’impianto». Dovrà «adottate tutte le precauzioni atte a evitare sversamenti accidentali e conseguenti contaminazioni delle acque marine» segregando le «aree interessate dalle operazioni di carico/scarico e di manutenzione». Nelle prescrizioni sono definiti limiti alle emissioni in aria, alle fonti sonore e alle vibrazioni, e si dettano le regole per il campionamento e la caratterizzazione dei rifiuti. In caso di incidenti viene prescritto al gestore l’obbligo di comunicazione immediata all’Ispra (Istituto superiore per la protezione e la ricerca ambientale). La comunicazione deve contenere «le circostanze dell’incidente, le sostanze rilasciate; i dati disponibili per valutare le conseguenze per l’ambiente, le misure di emergenza adottate, le informazioni sulle misure previste per limitare gli effetti a medio e lungo termine ed evitare che esso si riproduca».

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Mini Cruise Ship for sale

Mini Cruise Ship 300x138 Mini Cruise Ship for sale Romano Pisciotti
Mini Cruise Ship

 

General Information:
Make/model Mini Cruise Ship
Category Used commercial boat for sale
Price €12,000,000 EUR
Price comment Please mention that you saw this boat on The Yacht Market
Year of manufacture 2001
Length overall 53.95 metres
Location East Med, Greece, Greece
Propulsion
Fuel Diesel

Description
Mini Cruise Ship

A modern 54 m vessel with a sleek high-tech look very similar to the private yachts to be found in the famous ports of the world. Launched in January 2001, complies with the most stringent SOLAS safety regulations while its powerful engines and state of the art stabilizers allow for safe and comfortable cruising.

Specifications:

Launch year / Rebuilt : 2001

Ship type : Motor Yacht

Classification : Hellenic Register

Length/Breadth/Draft-in ft : 177 x 23.3 x 12 ft.

Length/Breadth/Draft- in M : 54 x 7.10 x 3.65 m.

Crew : 16-18

Cruising Speed : 10

Engines: Cummins 2 x 680 B.H.P

Stabilizers: YES

Fire/ Safety : SOLAS

Voyages : International

Insurance coverage by LLOYD’S

Fully air-conditioned

Magnetic compass

Autopilot

Gyro compass

Radar

Navtex

Safety deposit boxes

Direct dial phones.

Cabins/ Passengers: 22/46

 

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Segnalato Romano Pisciotti Mini Cruise Ship for sale Romano Pisciotti
Segnalato – Romano Pisciotti

U-boat

U boat U boat Romano Pisciotti
U boat

U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot [ˈuːboːt] , a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally “undersea boat”. While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one (in common with several other languages) refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the Firstand Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role (commerce raiding), enforcing a naval blockadeagainst enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from Canada, the British Empire, and the United States to the islands of the United Kingdom and (during the Second World War) to the Soviet Union and the Allied territories in the Mediterranean.

 

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The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP)

TANKER OFFLOADING

LOOP safely and efficiently offloads tankers of crude oil that are imported into the U.S. from the Arabian Gulf, Russia, West Africa, the North Sea, Mexico and South America. Many tankers that discharge their cargoes at LOOP are supertankers and are designated as either “very large crude carriers” (VLCCs) or “ultra large crude carriers” (ULCCs). These massive ships can be longer than the Empire State Building is tall.

In response to change US supply patterns, LOOP has made modifications to it’s mooring configuration to receive Jones Act compliant Medium Range (MR) tankers to receive cargoes from US ports. It also allows for FPSO shuttle tankers to deliver their cargo to LOOP.

marine hose The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
marine hose

The LOOP oil port and pipeline were specially constructed to accommodate these enormous vessels. Standing in 110 feet of water some 20 miles from land in the Gulf of Mexico, the LOOP Marine Terminal can comfortably accommodate tankers calling at the port.

Once anchored at one of the three single point mooring (SPM) buoys, hoses are attached to a ship’s manifold for offloading. Hi-tech, flexible hoses are attached to the ship’s manifold to receive and transport the crude oil. It is pumped from the ship in an underground pipeline.

Oil movement controllers from LOOP, in close communication with the ship, initiate the offloading of the vessel to the LOOP Marine Terminal where it is pumped into a 48-inch diameter pipeline to the LOOP storage facilities at a rate of up to 100,000 barrels per hour.

The oil arrives at the LOOP storage facility in Clovelly, Louisiana, some 45 miles from the marine terminal. There the oil is stored in a network of underground caverns and aboveground tanks. The LOOP marine terminal, pipeline and storage facilities reside in a Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) which provides opportunities for companies importing foreign crude oil to optimize their U.S. Customs duties.

pumping platform The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
pumping platform

 

 

 

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The first cargo ships passed through Egypt’s New Suez Canal

The first cargo ships passed through Egypt’s New Suez Canal on Saturday in a test-run before it opens next month, state media reported, 11 months after the army began constructing the $8 billion canal alongside the existing 145-year-old Suez Canal.

suez cana 1dcrxq 300x200 The first cargo ships passed through Egypts New Suez Canal Romano Pisciotti
new suez canal

The new waterway, which President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi hopes will help expand trade along the fastest shipping route between Europe and Asia and give a boost to Egypt’s economy, will be formally inaugurated on Aug. 6.

Sisi wants the canal to become a symbol of national pride and to help combat Egypt’s double-digit unemployment. The old Suez Canal is already a vital source of hard currency for Egypt, which has seen tourism and foreign investment drain away in the years of turmoil since a 2011 uprising.

Three container ships crossed the new waterway, state news agency MENA reported. One was an American ship heading to Egypt’s Port Said from Saudi Arabia, another was a Danish ship sailing to the United States from Singapore, and a Bahraini ship going to Italy from Saudi Arabia.

The exercise took place amid tight security. An insurgency based in the Sinai Peninsula, which borders on the Suez Canal, has killed hundreds of soldiers and police since 2013. State television said there were helicopters circling above and showed naval vessels escorting the ships.

Mohab Mameesh, the chairman of the Suez Canal Authority who led the project, told state television from aboard the first ship that the test-run had been a success.

“This is the first trial crossing but it will be followed by more trials,” he said. “We are 99.2 percent done with everything. We should be completely done in two or three days.”

The existing canal earns Egypt around $5 billion per year. The new canal, which will allow two-way traffic of larger ships, is supposed to increase revenues by 2023 to $15 billion.

It should also reduce navigation time for ships to 11 hours from about 22 hours, Mameesh said last month, making it the fastest such waterway in the world.

The government also plans to build an international industrial and logistics hub nearby that it hopes will eventually make up about a third of the Egyptian economy. (Reporting by Omar Fahmy and Yusri Mohamed; Writing by Ahmed Aboulenein; Editing by Raissa Kasolowsky)

Jul 25, 2015

 

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Attack submarine

Forget missiles, US Navy reveals nuclear submarine that can launch underwater DRONES !!!

2AC1A20000000578 3170159 image m 2 1437584413539 300x53 Attack submarine Romano Pisciotti

 

Attack submarine spent two months in Mediterranean testing drones
Was launched using special shelter usually used by special forces divers
Expected to be used as spy carrying infrared and other cameras
The US Navy has revealed its latest weapon – and underwater drone that can be released from submarines on the sea bed.
It is hoped the technology could be used in attack submarines following a successful trial on the USS North Dakota.
In a first for the U.S. Navy, the submarine has launched and recovered an underwater drone used in a military operation.

 

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What is an FPSO ?

 

FPSO Fluminense 300x200 What is an FPSO ? Romano Pisciotti
Offloading FPSO FLUMINENSE – Campo de BijupirESalema
27 de Novembro 2003

A Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) installation is a floating facility, usually based on a (converted) oil tanker hull. It is equipped with hydrocarbon processing equipment for separation and treatment of crude oil, water and gases, arriving on board from sub-sea oil wells via flexible pipelines.

Treated oil is transferred to cargo tanks in the FPSO ship’s hull. Treated gas is used as fuel for on-board power generation, and excess gas is either re-injected back into the subsea reservoirs or exported via a pipeline to shore. Water that is produced during production is discharged overboard, within the environmental limits. Alternatively, water may be injected into the reservoirs.

FPSO What is an FPSO ? Romano Pisciotti

Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship ” ROMA “

Roma 300x164 Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship  ROMA  Romano PisciottiSeptember 9th, 1943

September 9th, 1943

On September 9th 1943, the day following the proclamation of the armistice, the Italian battlegroup, under the command of Admiral Carlo Bergamini, was attacked in the waters of the Gulf of Asinara by a formation of German bombers. During the attack, the ship was struck and the commander at sea, along with a great number of officers, petty officers and sailors perished, in all 1.253 men.

How did it happen? Why was the most modern and most powerful Italian battleships sunk by just one bomb? Why did so many loose their lives?

September 3rd, 1943. Gen. Castellano, on behalf of Marshal Badoglio and the Gen. Bedeli Smith, representing Gen. Eisenhower, secretly signed in Cassibile (Sicily) the so-called “Short Military Armistice”. The document was composed of 13 clauses and the fourth one called for «the immediate transfer of the Italian fleet and the Italian airplanes to those places that will be designated by the allied Command with the details of their disarmament, that will be decided by the Allied forces». Adm. Raffaele de Courten, Minister of the Navy, along with the commanders responsible of the other branches, was called by Prime Minister Badoglio, who informed them that «negotiations are in progress to conclude an armistice with the Anglo-Americans», but that the news must be kelpt absolutely secret.

September 5th, 1943. The Head of the Armed Forces, General Ambrosio, mentioned to de Courten that the conclusion of the armistice and its declaration were to be expected between the 10th and the 15th of September , probably on the 12th or 13th and that most probability the fleet would be relocated to La Maddalena (Sardinia), where the King would most probably come with the royal family and part of the Government.

September 6th, 1943. De Courten received confirmation from Ambrosio that such a course of action should be implemented if events hamper the actions of the government and the military leaders so recommend. Consequently, Supermarina ordered that the two destroyers, the Vivaldi and Da Noli be stationed in Civitavecchia at dawn on September 9th, ready to sail in two hours. Two corvettes were stationed in Gaeta, and two MAS in Fiumicino (near the estuary if the Tiber River). The morning of the 7th, De Courten called a meeting in Rome for all admirals reporting to the Naval High Command (Supermarina). By this time, he still did not know that the armistice had been signed on September 3.

More and more, evident signs predicted an allied offensive against the southern coast of Italy. Twenty submarines were deployed along the possible approach routes of the convoy and they were put in a state of alarm.

September 7th, 1943. De Courten called a meeting at the Ministry of the Navy. Attendees included the Naval High Commander, Adm. Carlo Bergamini. During the meeting, de Courten did not consider it opportune to inform all present of the negotiations in progress for the armistice because such information was considered highly secret. With the attendees, he defined a conventional signal that would be used to order the scuttling of the fleet.

September 8 th, 1943. As soon as confirmation of the beginning of the allied landing in Salerno was received, de Courten gave orders to the Commander at Sea, Adm. Carlo Bergamini, (who in the meantime had returned aboard the Roma in Spezia), to fire up the boilers and be ready to sail at 2:00 PM. Anticipating an offensive the following day, orders were given to coordinate operations with the Regia Aeronautica and the Luftwaffe.

De Courten was called by the supreme commander General Ambrosio, who informed him that the Allies had rejected the proposal to transfer the fleet to La Maddalena, but that they had allowed one cruiser and four destroyers to be left to the disposal of the King. Nevertheless, he added that he would continue to insist on the La Maddalena issue, and that he still hoped to succeed in convincing the Allies. Finally, he told him to wait for orders to leave La Spezia with the battle group in about six hours.

De Courten was then called to the Quirinale (Royal Palace) for a meeting directed by the King. Gen. Ambrosio informed the audience that the armistice had been signed on September 3 with the agreement that a specific day for implementation would be communicated based on the mutual operational needs of the Italian and the Anglo-American.

At 18:30, Radio Algiers releases the news of the armistice to the world.

At 19:45 Badoglio made the following radio announcement: “The Italian Government, recognizing the impossibility of continuing the uneven struggle against the overwhelming enemy power, with the intent of saving further and more serious calamities to the Nation, has asked Gen. Eisenhower, commaner in chief of the Allies forces, for an armistice. The request has been accepted. Consequently every action of hostility against the allied armed forces must stop from the Italian armed forces in every place. They (the Italian forces), however, will react to possible attacks of any other origin».

According to the clauses of the armistice, the Italian ships, bearing black circular panels in sign of surrender, would be to transferred to Malta to await their final destiny. The situation had been completely turned upside-down. A few hours before, the Regia Marina was prepared to go to sea and fight the Allies. Not even the commander. Admiral Carlo Bergamini, had been made aware of the developments of the political situation. The highest secrecy, desired by Gen. Vittorio Ambrosio, had had its results.

Adm. Sansonetti gave orders to the fleet to reach the agreed allied ports but without “deliverering of the ships and lowering of the flag”. To convince friends and enemies alike, he transmitted his orders in clear..

Gen. Ambrosio asked the Anglo-Americans that the Fleet, for technical reasons, be moved to La Maddalena and that everything be ready for the docking of the ships.

Aboard the ships the excitement reached a dangerous level. Bergamini had to issue orders forbidding anyone from boarding the ship without proper notification and authorization. “No one should ask for directives”, he announced, “They will come when needed”. In the end, it was decided to call all admirals and commanders to a meeting. It was 10 PM.

The departure of the fleet, given as imminent during the day, had been postponed several times. Tension amongst the crew was at its worst. Bergamini took the situation under control and confirmed to the admirals and commanders the news of the armistice and summarily mentioned his telephone calls with Rome. He reminded everyone of the supreme duty of obedience so paramount in such a dramatic time.

September 9th, 1943. At 3 PM the fleet left for La Maddalena. It did not hoist the black signs of the surrender. At the same time, in the Gulf of Salerno, the Anglo-American operation “Avalanch” had begun.

Three battleships left La Spezia: the Roma, with Adm. Bergamini aboard, the Vittorio Veneto and Littorio (renamed Italia after July 25, 1943) with Adm. Garofolo. Three cruisers (Eugenio di Savoia, Adm. Oliva; Montecuccoli and Regolo) and eight destroyers (Legionario, Grecale, Oriani, Velite, Mitragliere, Fuciliere, Artigliere and Carabiniere). The Fleet was maintained at about twenty kilometers from the western coast of Corsica at a speed of 22 knots. At dawn, an allied plane spotted the fleet. At 8:00 AM Adm.. Meendsen Bohlken, commander of the German forces in La Spezia, gave the alarm to Berlin: «The Italian fleet has departed during the night to surrender itself to the enemy».

At noon on the 9th the Fleet , with the ships in a line formation, was in sight of the Bocche di Bonifacio. Bergamini took a 90-degree left turn toward la Maddalena, but at 13.40 PM he received news that La Maddalena had been occupied by German forces. Without hesitation, Bergamini reversed course 180 degrees.

At 2:00 PM, Bergamini was in sight of the Asinara. Meantime more reconnaissance planes were spotted. Unexpectedly, from five thousand meters, airplanes dropped a few bombs without striking any of the ships

From lstres (Marsiglia) 15 two-engine Donier 217 KIIs from the 3rd Squadron of the 100° group took off. Each airplane was equipped with a type FX-1400 bomb. This bomb had been designed in 1939 by Doctor Kramer and was originally named FritzX. The FX-1400, which was also knows as the SD 1400, was a high penetration 1400-kilo device with four small wings, tail controls and a rocket motor. Near the tail a remote control system was also installed. The control was operated by the airplane from which the bomb had been launched. The bomb, with 300 kilograms of explosives, was 3,30 meter long .

At 15.30 the first bomb was directed toward the Littorio (named Italia after July 25 1943) and it fell near the battleship temporarily blocking the rudder. The ship was then controlled with the auxiliary rudder. The point of the attack was about 14 miles southwest miles of Cape Testa (Sardinia).

The rocket bombs were a great surprise. Not only were they extremely precise, but the fact that they were dropped at 60 degrees instead of the usual 80 created confusion. This new technique tricked the Italian officers into believing that the German intentions were not offensive. This mistake was fatal, considering that the Italians were under order to fight back only if attacked.

Only after a demonstration of such evident hostility from the Germans, did the Roma give the signal of «air alarm». The antiaircraft batteries, first from the right, then from the left, opened swift fire, but it was too late! The airplanes were just above the ships and in that position they were safe.

At 15.45 the Roma was hit on the right side. The bomb burst into sea after having crossed the whole hull and the ship’s speed was reduced to 10 knots.

At 15.50 the Roma was struck again by a second bomb. This one exploded in the forward deposits of the big caliber complexes. The ship was fatally wounded. A column of flames and smoke rose for a thousand meters. The turret n. 2 (1.500 tons) along with all of its occupants and the command tower were projected aloft and tilted to the right side. It was the end for Bergamini and his staff. The ship began to tilt to the right side. It was a horrendous show of death and destruction. The majority of the men were burnted alive.

At 16.12 the Roma turned upside-down, broke into two stumps, and sank. With her 2 Admirals, 86 Officers and 1264 sailors were lost.

Roma 2 Regia Marina Italiana: Battleship  ROMA  Romano Pisciotti