Petrolio & Finanza: Contratto SWAP

Un anno fa, quando il prezzo del petrolio era salito sopra i 50 dollari al barile, molti produttori pensavano che i prezzi del greggio fossero saliti al loro massimo per il prossimo futuro. Sostenendo la loro visione, hanno stipulato contratti di opzione in base ai quali, ad esempio, sarebbero stati pagati $ 50 al barile indipendentemente dal prezzo spot al momento della consegna, avrebbero comunque ricevuto $ 50 al barile se i prezzi fossero scesi, ma perdendo la differenza secondo quanto, se nel caso, il prezzo fosse salito sopra $ 50 al barile. Questo è chiamato un contratto di swap.

It is earnings season, and oil producers are not all putting out good earnings reports, despite a rise in the price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) from $40 per barrel just two years ago to $70 per barrel today. You would think that companies that barely survived two years ago would now be flush with earnings, but for some companies, the opposite is true, as financial contracts from a year or so ago are now coming back to bite.
Hedging allows producers to minimize price risk by locking in the price they will be paid for future production. This can smooth out revenues for a producer with a reliable stream of future production. If the price of crude rises, the producer misses out on the upside, but if it goes down the producer is insulated against losses. Futures contracts, which are highly leveraged, are traded on various exchanges and are highly liquid. If a producer enters into a futures contract and later decides it made a mistake, it can get out by selling its position in the contract.
Romano Pisciotti: surfing internet

Petrolio & Finanza

La Russia si allarga a Est

Mosca – Il premier russo Dmitri Medvedev ha firmato un decreto che estendedi 50 mila chilometri quadrati la porzione di piattaforma continentale russa nel Mare di Okhotsk, in estremo oriente. Secondo Medvedev,la zona è ricca di risorse energetiche.

Russia mappa 300x225 La Russia si allarga a Est Romano Pisciotti
Russia – mappa

Il decreto arriva dopo che il governo di Mosca ha consultato la Commissione Onu sui limiti della piattaforma continentale e si è accordato con i Paesi vicini, incluso il Giappone, che rivendica le isole Curili, bagnate proprio dal Mare di Okhotsk.

Romano Pisciotti: Putin non sta a pettinare bambole

LNG in the arctic

projets phares methaniers arctiques methaniers arctiques principal LNG in the arctic Romano Pisciotti

The harsh Arctic conditions make developing and transporting natural gas a daunting challenge. Total is studying a design for a new LNG carrier able to do its own icebreaking and make its way across glacial waters at -40 °C. – See more at: http://www.total.com/en/energies-expertise/oil-gas/trading-shipping/projects-achievements/arctic-lng-carriers#sthash.6DwY6yTN.dpuf

Captain Romano Pisciotti, surfing web, ship & new technology

The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP)

TANKER OFFLOADING

LOOP safely and efficiently offloads tankers of crude oil that are imported into the U.S. from the Arabian Gulf, Russia, West Africa, the North Sea, Mexico and South America. Many tankers that discharge their cargoes at LOOP are supertankers and are designated as either “very large crude carriers” (VLCCs) or “ultra large crude carriers” (ULCCs). These massive ships can be longer than the Empire State Building is tall.

In response to change US supply patterns, LOOP has made modifications to it’s mooring configuration to receive Jones Act compliant Medium Range (MR) tankers to receive cargoes from US ports. It also allows for FPSO shuttle tankers to deliver their cargo to LOOP.

marine hose The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
marine hose

The LOOP oil port and pipeline were specially constructed to accommodate these enormous vessels. Standing in 110 feet of water some 20 miles from land in the Gulf of Mexico, the LOOP Marine Terminal can comfortably accommodate tankers calling at the port.

Once anchored at one of the three single point mooring (SPM) buoys, hoses are attached to a ship’s manifold for offloading. Hi-tech, flexible hoses are attached to the ship’s manifold to receive and transport the crude oil. It is pumped from the ship in an underground pipeline.

Oil movement controllers from LOOP, in close communication with the ship, initiate the offloading of the vessel to the LOOP Marine Terminal where it is pumped into a 48-inch diameter pipeline to the LOOP storage facilities at a rate of up to 100,000 barrels per hour.

The oil arrives at the LOOP storage facility in Clovelly, Louisiana, some 45 miles from the marine terminal. There the oil is stored in a network of underground caverns and aboveground tanks. The LOOP marine terminal, pipeline and storage facilities reside in a Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) which provides opportunities for companies importing foreign crude oil to optimize their U.S. Customs duties.

pumping platform The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) Romano Pisciotti
pumping platform

 

 

 

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Who Benefits Most From Cheap Oil?

China’s Insatiable Appetite For Oil

As per the EIA, China is currently the biggest consumer of crude oil after the US and its consumption rate is about one third of the world’s consumption growth rate. In 2014, its crude imports averaged at around 6.2 million barrels per day .This means that cheap oil would hugely benefit the Asian giant as it would drastically reduce its overall import bill.

India

With a projected growth rate of more than 7.8% in 2015, India is all set to grow more than China according to the IMF and World Bank. With a consumption of more than 3 million barrels of oil per day, India is the fourth largest global consumer of oil in the world. Since the country imports around 80% of its total crude oil requirement, cheap oil has drastically reduced India’s import bill and current account deficit from the previous years. As per India’s current finance minister, the country might even achieve a current account surplus in the fourth quarter of 2015. Moreover, India has recently de-regulated the price of diesel and petrol and brought it in line with the international rates. The deregulation of fuel has reduced its retail cost which has resulted in reduction of the overall inflation rate.

olio1 Who Benefits Most From Cheap Oil? Romano Pisciotti